The Use Forex Trading as Hedging of Currency Risks

Companies engaged in foreign trade transactions worldwide are active participants in international Forex market. For exporters, there is a constant need to sell foreign currency, while importers - buy it. Currency exchange rates in the international currency market are constantly changing. As a result, the real value of buy or sell a currency for the goods or services can significantly change and profitable contract may not be profitable or unprofitable. Of course, and can reverse the situation when a change of exchange rates makes a profit, but the task of trading company is not profit from changes in exchange rates. For commercial companies, it is important to be able to plan the real cost of buy or sell a product, so the company is widely used in its operations hedge currency risks. Cash, as well as future income or expenses in foreign currencies subject to exchange rate risks. Normally, accounting for the company is in one currency (for example, in United States dollars), thus resulting from the revaluation of articles in foreign currencies may gain or loss when changing rates of these currencies.

Hedging currency risk

Hedging currency risk - is protected from adverse movements in exchange rates, which is to fix the present value of these funds by entering into transactions on the Forex market. Hedging leads to the fact that the company disappears risk rates, which makes it possible to plan activities and to see financial results are not distorted exchange fluctuations. Transactions in the Forex market are carried out under the principle of margin trading. This trade has a number of features, which made him very popular. A small start-up capital allows the transaction to the amount many times (in the tens and hundreds) of its excess. This surplus is called Leverage (Leverage). Trade is conducted without real money supply, which reduces overhead and provides an opportunity to open positions as buying or selling currency (including different from the currency deposit). A feature of hedging currency risk through transactions without the actual movement of funds (using leverage) you can not divert traffic from the company’s significant money.

There are two basic types of hedging - hedging buyer and seller hedging. Hedge buyer used to reduce the risks associated with a possible rise in the prices of goods. Hedge seller is in the opposite situation - to limit the risks associated with a possible decrease in prices of goods.

The general principle of hedging in the foreign trade transactions is to open foreign currency position on the trade account aside for future operations conversion of funds. The importer must buy foreign currency, so it opens up the position of pre-buying the currency on the trade account, and when the moment of real buying the currency in his bank, closing the position. Exporter must sell foreign currency, so it opens up the position of pre-selling the currency on the trade account, and when the time of the sale of real currency in his bank, closing the position.

September 25, 2008 by FXcaliber

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The Importance of Identifying Favorable Stock Chart Patterns

The Importance of Identifying Favorable Stock Chart Patterns

To be a successful investor it’s important to look for those stocks which are forming a favorable chart pattern such as a "Cup and Handle", "Double Bottom" or "Flat Base". In 2002 some of the best performing stocks exhibited the above mentioned chart patterns before breaking out and undergoing significant price appreciation.

Here are a few stocks that exhibited a "Cup and Handle" pattern before breaking above their Pivot Points on strong volume. CBZ formed a 7 month Cup from July of 2001 until February of 2002 and then developed 3 week Handle (H) before breaking above its Pivot Point in early April on strong volume. After breaking out of its Handle CBZ appreciated nearly 155%.

FSTW formed a 1 year Cup from January of 2001 until January of 2002 and then developed a 9 week Handle. FSTW then broke out of its Handle and above its Pivot Point in April accompanied by strong volume. After breaking out of its Handle FSTW appreciated nearly 225% over the next few months.

HL formed a shallow 9 month Cup from May of 2001 until February of 2002 and then developed a 4 week Handle (H). It then broke out of its Handle and above its Pivot Point in late March on good volume. After breaking out of its Handle HL gained nearly 275% over the next few months.

MWRK formed a 5 month Cup from September of 2001 into the early part of 2002 and then formed a 4 week Handle (H). MWRK then broke out of its Handle and above its Pivot Point in early March. After breaking out of its Handle MWRK gained nearly 200% over the next several months.

Another chart pattern to look for is the "Double Bottom" which looks like the letter "W". Here is a stock (CFI) that formed a Double Bottom pattern from May of 2000 into the early part of 2002 and then developed a small 3 week Handle (H) before breaking out in March accompanied by strong volume. After breaking out in March CFI gained nearly 170% over the next four months.

The third type of chart pattern to look for is called a "Flat Base". Flat Bases form as a stock basically trades sideways for several weeks or months. CVU formed a Flat Base for nearly 6 months before breaking out in April on good volume and appreciated over 300% over the next few months.

TENT is another example of a stock which formed a Flat Base for 10 months before breaking out in the early part of 2002. After breaking out TENT appreciated nearly 450% over the next 6 months.

These are some of the chart patterns you should be looking for when deciding which stocks to invest in. Investing in a stock which doesn’t have a favorable looking chart pattern can lead to poor performance while other stocks which are breaking out of a favorable chart pattern ("Cup and Handle", "Double Bottom" and "Flat Base") undergo significant price appreciation. Also if you examine the stocks mentioned above they all broke out of a favorable chart pattern on strong volume as well.

Bob Kleyla

The Dangers Of Getting Emotional About A Forex Trade

Anyone who has seen the film Wall Street will undoubtedly remember Michael Douglas telling Martin Sheen not to get emotional about a stock. This is good advice for people trading in the stock market, but it is absolutely vital for people involved in Forex trading.

It is very easy to find yourself caught up in a trade. You open a position because you feel good about it and then you hang in there even if the market starts to move against you because you just know that the market is going to turn back in your favor. From time to time of course it does but, as a general rule, it doesn't.

The problem here is that you allow yourself to become attached to a trade and your decision to stay with it is very much an emotional decision. Also, because you are emotionally attached to a trade you view closing your position as an admission that you were wrong to have opened it in the first place.

Trading within the Forex market has to be driven by the market indicators and your trading decisions must be based on what these indictors are telling you and not on how you are feeling. If you are going to be a successful trader then you have to be ruled by your head and not by your heart.

There will be times when you find that you have an emotional attachment to a specific currency and that the majority of your trading tends to be in that currency. There's nothing wrong with this. You may even feel sometimes that the time is right to buy a particular currency. That's okay too. The mistake is not to follow a feeling about a particular currency but to open a position purely on the basis of this feeling.

If you have a feeling about a currency then begin by checking it out and take a look at the market numbers. If the numbers tell you that the time is right to open a position then do so but, if they tell you that it's not a favorable market then, no matter how you feel about it, you should not get into the market.

Similarly, if you have opened a position and the indicators tell you that the market is moving against you and that it is time to close your position then do so. Your heart may well tell you to 'hang in there' but it is the market and not your heart which pays your bills

In Forex trading you will win on some trades and will lose on others and that's nothing more than the way the market works. It is not a question of whether you are right or you are wrong. The market will frequently move unexpectedly and catch out even the most experienced of traders.

The secret lies in following the market indicators, recognizing that you are going to lose in a trade and getting out as quickly as you can to minimize your loss. You can then move on to your next, hopefully profitable, trade.

The truth about Buy and sell signals

Wrong! The perennial questions are, "Should I buy? Should I sell?" All too many traders focus their efforts on identifying buy and sell signals. In fact, that’s what most trading books consist of-some way to find buy and sell signals. Trading systems are usually all about "where to get in."

The research and analysis traders do is geared towards reaching the goal of getting that magic "base line" directive to guide their actions. How ignorant can you be?

Any successful, experienced trader will tell you that although properly identifying buy/sell signals is important, it’s not the key to being successful. Instead, the way you manage each trade is what will determine your success.

Traders who take the baseline approach tend to believe that the success of their trading activity is dependent on following the right buy/sell signals at the right time. Clearly, it’s important that a trader be able to understand the process of generating signals and to use the methods involved. Realistically though, almost any trader can find a way to generate signals (whether using technical methods already out there, coming up with their own system, or using their platform’s automated signal generation tools).

Any successful, experienced trader will tell you that your trade doesn’t begin and end with a buy or sell. There’s a trade management process involved. For each trade you make, you’re making a group of decisions. The way you manage and time those decisions is what will determine the success of your trade.

Let’ say two traders get the same signal at the same time and act on it. One’s trade may result in profits while the other’s results in losses. How is this possible? It can occur because each trader made a different combination of decisions throughout the course of the trade. The decisions might include scaling in and/or out of the trade, using or not using trailing stop losses, setting or not setting profit objectives prior to entry, patience or lack thereof, etc. The trader who made the most effective overall combination of decisions will have the better trade results in the end. Of course, there are times when pure chance, gives the better result to the worst trader.

It’s very important to regard trading as a process, and to understand that as a trader your efforts need to be focused on the activity of trading itself, as opposed to getting a quick base line answer. Because there are many things to take into consideration in making your trades successful, it’s essential that you educate and train yourself in all the different areas. Learn how to develop better trading plans and analysis methods, and then learn how to apply what you’ve developed to the process of a making a trade-from the original impulse to enter or stay out of a trade to the control of your thought processes and emotions in managing that trade.

by Joe Ross

The 4 Elements Of Any Good Trading Market

The foreign exchange market (forex market or fx market) is the world's largest market and consists largely of the forex spot market (spot foreign exchange market) and the currency futures market. Today however the majority of smaller traders tend to confine themselves to trading spot forex.

There are four elements which must be present in any good financial market, whether you are trading in the stock, bond, futures, currency market or any other market. These four elements are liquidity, transparency, low trading costs and market trends.


There are always two sides to a trade, a purchase and a sale, and in its simplest form liquidity refers to the ease with which traders can buy and sell. To be truly liquid traders must also be able to trade in substantial volume without this having any marked effect on prices.

If a market lacks liquidity then traders will often encounter delays in meeting orders to buy, frequently leading to a significant variation between the price when an order is placed and when it is executed. In addition, it may be hard to sell in a market that is not sufficiently liquid.

Fortunately the currency exchange market (especially when trading in major world currencies such as the USD and GBP) is extremely liquid and a huge number of trades are conducted each day on the Forex money market with a trading volume that far exceeds that of other markets.


A market is said to possess transparency when traders can access accurate information at all stages of the trading process.

Information is the key to many things in life and the world's various markets are no exception. There are many examples, especially in the world stock markets, of companies and individuals which have run into difficulty because the parties to a trade did not have access to accurate information.

The foreign currency exchange market is without doubt the world's most transparent market and this is especially true when it comes to pricing.

Low Trading Costs

Markets carry trading costs which inevitably lower a trader's profits or increase his losses. However, when a market can keep its trading costs low it becomes attractive to traders and encourages both an increased number of trades and an greater trading volume.

The absence of commission and other usual trading costs, together with the tight spread of prices, in currency trading mean that trading costs in the Forex market are kept very low.

Market Trends

In many markets it can be difficult to know just when to enter the market and when to exit it (when to 'buy' and when to 'sell'). As a result, it is important to have some way of assessing the present state of a market and to predict its future direction.

In the foreign currency exchange market this is achieved by employing various forms of technical analysis which examine the past performance of the market and identify trends which can then be used to predict its future.

Most markets display trends of one form or another, but in some markets these are far more clearly defined than in others, making it far easier for traders to enter and exit the market. The foreign currency market displays a particularly strong trending characteristic.

What makes a good Trading Strategy?

Ask most NEW traders, and they will tell you about some moving average or combination of indicators or a chart pattern that they use. This is, as the more experienced trader knows, an entry point and not a strategy.

Any trader who is more experienced will say a strategy should also include money management, risk control, perhaps stop losses and of course, an exit point. They might also say that you must let your profits run and cut your losses short. A well-read trader will also tell you that your strategy should fit with your trading personality.

BUT there is one other vital ingredient that many traders forget - and that is to fully understand the "personality" of what you trade. Some traders specialise in say, gold or Brent crude or currencies or they might specialise in a particular index such as the FTSE 100 or the Dow but many traders choose to trade shares. Indeed some traders dabble in a bit of everything. I think this is the area that causes many traders to fail or at least not reach their full potential.

In my view: You absolutely MUST specialise.

I am sure that on the surface most people would say that sounds sensible but here is why it is a MUST!

Superficially, many charts look the same. I bet if you had not seen the charts for some time and someone where to show you a chart of Brent Crude over 6 months and then a chart of Barclays PLC over the same 6 months you would be hard pushed to say which was which purely on the look of the chart.

However, I bet that if you found a trader who trades ONLY Barclays day in and day out and also found someone who trades ONLY Brent Crude day in and day out, both of them would easily identify which was which. WHY?

Because every share, index or commodity has it’s own "personality".

Some will be volatile intra-day, some will follow their sector or the main index (market followers), some will do their own thing, some will spike up and down regularly, some will stop at key moving averages and some will just plough through. Some will move by 5% on average before they retrace and some by 2%. Some will gap up or down regularly, some will not. You get the idea!

Therefore, no matter how good you are at analysing indicators, moving averages, trends and patterns, the same strategy WILL NOT work for everything. I would go so far as to say that a strategy that works well for Bovis Homes, for example, is likely NOT to work for BT Group - they have very different "personalities".

So let’s return to our question: What makes a good trading strategy? Let me answer with a series of ten questions that you need to find answers to, in order to build a REALLY GOOD strategy.

  1. What do you want to trade (share, index, commodity, currency, etc)? If your answer is shares (plural) I would urge you to pick one typical share at this stage to really specialise. You can add more later.
  2. What "personality" does that share, index etc have?
  3. What entry system is the most reliable for that share?
  4. What stop loss system is the most effective for that share?
  5. What average risk will a typical trade carry?
  6. What exit system works well for that share?
  7. What is your trading personality (attitude to risk, losses, discipline, how much do you worry etc) and can you trade that strategy without overriding it?
  8. What timescale do you want to trade? (Using intra-day or end of day data)
  9. How much data do you keep on past trades to help identify strategy weaknesses?
  10. How does all this fit with your trading objectives?

Once you have an answer to each question you need to do one final thing. Make sure all those things fit together and complement each other. For example, if the ideal stop loss position represents a big average risk and conflicts with your own attitude to risk, you need to start again. If you will override your exit point because greed makes you hang in for more, you need to think again. Perhaps you shouldn’t trade that stock in the first place - look for one with a different "personality" which will lead to a strategy you can trade comfortably.

It is a long and sometimes painful iterative journey. You might need to go round and round in ever decreasing circles over a long time. Testing and refining, testing and refining before you can truly have a reliable and repeatable strategy that REALLY WORKS for you.

THEN, you can look for other things to trade that have the same "personality" as your specialist stock, index, commodity or currency.

But if it were easy, everyone would be doing it right?

Good luck and enjoy your trading.

David Graeme-Smith
Short Swing Trading